4. how many challenges may an attorney make to excuse biased jurors for just cause?

by Carolina West 10 min read

Full Answer

Why do lawyers question jurors?

What are personal experiences that might affect the person's ability to judge the case?

What is a juror called?

What is a peremptory challenge?

Why do defense attorneys use peremptories?

Why do lawyers not use peremptory?

What is the name of the process of questioning in court?

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How many challenges may an attorney make to excuse biased jurors for just cause?

In California, for most cases the number of peremptory challenges available to each lawyer is ten so long as there is one defendant. For death penalty or life imprisonment cases where a single defendant is involved, each attorney is permitted 20 peremptory challenges.

What type of challenge is appropriate for a biased juror?

A challenge for cause requires convincing a judge that a prospective juror has a bias that precludes impartiality; a peremptory challenge, on the other hand, affords attorneys tremendous leeway by allowing for the exclusion of jurors without explanation or evidence of potential impartiality.

What are 2 types of challenges to remove potential jurors?

After questioning prospective jurors, each side's attorney may challenge certain jurors using two types of challenges: "for cause" and "peremptory." By challenging a juror, the attorney is asking the judge to excuse that juror from the panel.

What is an example of challenge for cause?

a request made to the judge during voir dire that a prospective juror be removed for some specific reason. For example, a juror with some relationship to either the prosecution or the defense may be removed as a result of a challenge for cause.

What is the difference between a challenge for cause and a peremptory challenge?

There are certain legal grounds for which a juror might be excused, called a challenge for cause, and each side may excuse a certain number of jurors, called a peremptory challenge. The challenges do not reflect on the jurors' integrity or intelligence.

How many challenges for cars may be made by the prosecution and the defense in a felony criminal trial?

For felony trials, both the prosecution and the defense each have 10 peremptory challenges. In a misdemeanor case, each side has 3. A peremptory challenge can be used for any reason and a reason does not even have to be provided.

What is a trial by an impartial jury?

An impartial jury is a jury that will consider a case fairly, without favoring or discriminating against anyone. The jury must be willing to look at the evidence open-mindedly. An impartial jury does not immediately assume guilt or innocence.

Which of the following offenders has the right to a trial by jury?

All persons accused of misdemeanors or felonies in California are entitled to a jury trial. Only a unanimous verdict can convict a defendant in a criminal trial.

5 Reasons People Are Excused From Jury Duty

Jury duty is a right and a privilege, but there are some reasons people are excused from jury duty. Juries are an important part of the criminal justice system in America. They listen to the evidence presented by both the defense and the prosecution, talk about the case with each other and make a decision as to the guilt or innocence of the person on trial. Either side can dismiss individuals ...

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The jury selection process is one of the most important steps in a trial, but there are some things that disqualify potential jurors. Attorneys for both sides have the chance to ask questions and determine which individuals they want and do not want on that jury. As a law or criminal justice student, you may want to know which factors to look out for when picking a jury. Personal History The ...

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bias for or against the defendant; contact with the defendant, or; refusal or inability to follow the law. Sometimes, jurors may not have given honest answers during voir dire. Other times, jurors only realize during the trial or jury deliberations that they have strong feelings or preconceived opinions that make it impossible to be fair, consider the evidence, and apply the law to the facts ...

Top 10 things prospective jurors should know about jury duty

The reasons you can be disqualified from jury duty — There are 10 disqualifications from jury service.The way you report a disqualification depends on the type of disqualification. Jurors are picked using random selection — Prospective jurors are selected at random from the resident lists supplied to the Office of Jury Commissioner every year.

Why do lawyers question jurors?

Yet all courts provide for the questioning of potential jurors to expose reasons why the individual might not make an ideal juror—one who can be impartial and fair. To that end, lawyers and the judge question each would-be juror, looking for evidence of impermissible bias. When such bias is uncovered, the individual will be excused “for cause,” which means that the lawyer making the challenge can articulate to the judge an acceptable reason for rejecting that person.

What are personal experiences that might affect the person's ability to judge the case?

Personal experiences that might affect the person’s ability to judge the case. While a venireperson’s experience with the subject matter of the case might make that person an informed juror, it might also make him a biased one. For instance, someone who has himself been the victim of a similar crime might be prone to project his trauma onto ...

What is a juror called?

The crowd of people who show up at the courthouse with jury summons in hand are known as “venirepersons, ” which means that they are potential jurors (the group is called “the venire"). In large courthouses, in particular, it’s common for venirepersons to be given a form to complete, which asks a number of questions regarding the individuals’ personal circumstances. At this point (if not before, upon receiving the summons), a potential juror can request a deferral or ask to be excused due to the need, for example, to tend a sick family member or to take care of small children. The judge, sometimes in consultation with the lawyers on the case, will review these questionnaires and excuse venirepersons as appropriate (often with a promise that they’ll be called again soon).

What is a peremptory challenge?

These are known as peremptory challenges, which are ways to get rid of jurors who present no obvious evidence of bias or unsuitability.

Why do defense attorneys use peremptories?

Convinced that the juror would not be fair , the defense attorney uses one of his peremptories to excuse her. Another theory for the use of peremptories is that by letting each side dispense with the most unacceptable members of the jury, it results in a more middle-of-the road jury, one not subject to extreme views.

Why do lawyers not use peremptory?

Although lawyers don’t have to give a reason for using a peremptory, they may not use them in order to rid the jury of people of a certain race, religion, gender, or other protected status. If a pattern begins to emerge—the prosecutor excuses every Black juror but no White members—the judge will intervene.

What is the name of the process of questioning in court?

The questioning process comes with its own legal name—voir dire (vwar deer ). The questions are designed to elicit bias and predisposition.

What is Juror Bias?

Juror bias is basically anything that interferes with an individual’s ability to impartially consider the facts presented in the course of a trial. There are two main types of bias.

What happens if a juror lies during a voir dire?

If a juror lies about their bias during voir dire, if they are later revealed to have formed an opinion about the verdict before the presentation of evidence is complete, or if they have engaged in any other form of juror misconduct such as getting outside information about the trial, the criminal defense attorney can and should raise a motion for a new trial.

What is implied bias?

Implied bias is a relationship or circumstance that is likely to cause bias, though that bias is not specifically stated or expressed by the juror. Some examples include: 1 Being a relative, colleague, or associate of anyone involved in the case 2 Having served as a juror or witness in any prior civil or criminal case involving the same parties

What is actual bias?

Actual bias is a state of mind that prevents the juror from considering the case impartially. Some common examples include: A prejudice against the defendant that preconceives either guilt or innocence. A prejudice against the reliability of a certain type of witness. A bias for or against the death penalty. A gut reaction to a particular type of ...

What is the role of a criminal defense attorney?

First of all, the criminal defense attorney must dedicate great care to the juror selection process. During the “voir dire” process, the judge and the attorneys may ask prospective jurors questions in order to ascertain whether or not they may have any actual or implied bias. Jurors are required to answer honestly and if any hint of prejudice is revealed, they will be dismissed from service. The criminal defense attorney may also make peremptory challenges to juror selection to remove jurors.

Can a jury have bias?

A juror can also be considered to have actual bias if they express an opinion about the verdict before all the evidence has been presented.

Do jurors have to answer honestly?

Jurors are required to answer honestly and if any hint of prejudice is revealed, they will be dismissed from service. The criminal defense attorney may also make peremptory challenges to juror selection to remove jurors.

How many questions are asked in a jury?

For starters, there is a standard list of about 6 or 7 questions asked of every juror and they are very general. To the best of my recollection, the

Why are jurors less than candid?

Sometimes jurors are less than candid out of eagerness to serve, sometimes out of competitiveness, and sometimes out of embarrassment and shame. Jurors, like everyone else in the courtroom, are human.

How many jurors are there in a jury pool?

The way it works is your entire jury pool reports to the courtroom. Then the judge will call out 14 jurors and tell them where to sit in the “box.” All other potential jurors sit in the gallery.

What happens if a juror crosses the line?

If a juror crosses the line they find out what contempt of court means.

What to do if you don't know your client is lying?

If you don’t know that your client is lying, you give him the benefit of the doubt and let the jury decide. If, however, you know your client is lying, you cannot ethically repeat that lie.

What are the two types of challenges in Tennessee?

I’ll answer in Tennessee. There are two types of challenges, one is for cause, and the other is peremptory challenges.

Can each side strike a certain number of prospective jurors without giving a reason?

Each side can strike a certain number of prospective jurors without giving a reason. (But they would be wise to have a reason to give in case they’re accused of doing something illegal like trying to keep people of one race off the jury .)

Why do I ask this question because if one of the jurors did know the attorney or the litigants,?

I ask this question because if one of the jurors did know the attorney or the litigants, it might cause them to lean in favor of that person.

What happens when you are called to jury duty?

When you are called for jury duty, you get the dreaded summons in the mail commanding you to appear in court on a certain date, at a certain time. Once you check in, you're told to hurry up and wait in a big room commonly known as the jury room .

What option do I have now to remove this poisonous juror?

Since I no longer have any "Remove this juror" cards left (they're not really called that, but you get the idea), I now have to ask my adversary if he'll consent to remove this juror.

What happens if I get my adversary's consent?

If I get my adversary's consent, then together we can excuse this potential juror and have him return to the jury room to wait for the next case.

What happens if you are left on the jury?

You don't often hear lawyers talk about this. If you're left on the jury panel after other jurors have been removed, you will be part of the jury that sits in judgment to decide this case.

What does "jury selection" mean?

The words"jury selection" give you the sense that lawyers go into a room and actually choose jurors we want on the jury.

What do you do when you arrive for jury duty?

When you arrive for jury duty, you'll be asked to fill out a questionnaire.

What is the criticism of jury selection?

A further criticism of this kind of jury selection is that it makes it easier to achieve a conviction, which critics argue leads to a higher chance of wrongful convictions. In most (if not all) jury systems a super-majority (or unanimity) is required to convict (e.g. in the UK over 83% of jurors are required for a conviction - a 10 to 2 majority can be accepted if a unanimous decision cannot be reached). If both sides are able to challenge jurors one would expect the prosecution to try to remove those with a general tendency to wish to acquit. Of course one would expect the defense to challenge those they think have a general tendency to convict, but if both sides do their job equally well then the tendency will be to turn what would have been a small majority (one way or the other) into a strong majority in the same direction, potentially causing the proportion to rise over the super-majority threshold required.

How many jurors can challenge a defence in Hong Kong?

Unlike England, no statutory change has been made to abolish the right. Each party of the defence is entitled to challenge up to a maximum of five jurors without providing cause.

What is the meaning of the term "Batson challenge"?

79 (1986). The term "Batson challenge" is used to refer to the act of arguing for the invalidity of a trial on the basis that peremptory challenges during jury selection resulted in the exclusion of a cognizable group.

How many peremptory challenges are there in Canada?

The number of challenges awarded to each of the prosecutor and the defense depended on the type of charge and maximum potential sentence. Twenty challenges were awarded in cases for high treason and first degree murder, twelve challenges for offenses with a maximum penalty greater than five years, and four challenges for jury eligible offenses with a penalty of five years or less; However, in cases where the judge orders that thirteen or fourteen jurors be sworn in as opposed to the usual twelve, both the prosecution and the defense received one additional challenge per additional juror seat.

Why are peremptory challenges important?

The idea behind peremptory challenges is that if both parties have contributed in the configuration of the jury, they will find its verdict more acceptable. The existence of peremptory challenges is argued to be an important safeguard in the judicial process, allowing both the defendant and the prosecution to get rid of potentially biased jurors. Their use allows attorneys to use their training and experience to dismiss jurors who might say the correct thing, but might otherwise harbor prejudices that could infringe the rights of the defendant to a fair trial.

What is the right of peremptory challenge?

In American and Australian law, the right of peremptory challenge is a right in jury selection for the attorneys to reject a certain number of potential jurors without stating a reason. Other potential jurors may be challenged for cause, i.e. by giving a good reason why they might be unable to reach a fair verdict, ...

How many challenges does the defense get in a felony?

when indicted on a felony in the USA the defense gets 10 challenges to the prosecution's 6).

What types of challenges are available to strike jurors?

There are two types of challenges to remove prospective jurors. The first is a for-cause challenge . These are used to remove those people who clearly evince an obvious bias and cannot decide a case impartially. If there was an auto accident case involving an insurance company and a prospective juror exclaimed during voir dire—"I hate insurance companies." That might be enough for the presiding judge to find that the person could not decide the case impartially and could be dismissed for cause.

Why do jurors ask questions in voir dire?

In the voir dire process, prosecutors and defense attorneys ask members of the jury pool questions to determine whether or not they want those jurors to remain on the jury pool. In federal court, the judge often asks most of the questions. For example, if a prospective juror clearly indicates that they are biased either for or against law ...

How to establish a prima facie case of purposeful discrimination in selection of the petit jury?

These principles support our conclusion that a defendant may establish a prima facie case of purposeful discrimination in selection of the petit jury solely on evidence concerning the prosecutor's exercise of peremptory challenges at the defendant's trial. To establish such a case, the defendant first must show that he is a member of a cognizable racial group, and that the prosecutor has exercised peremptory challenges to remove from the venire members of the defendant's race. Second, the defendant is entitled to rely on the fact, as to which there can be no dispute, that peremptory challenges constitute a jury selection practice that permits "those to discriminate who are of a mind to discriminate." Finally, the defendant must show that these facts and any other relevant circumstances raise an inference that the prosecutor used that practice to exclude the venire men from the petit jury on account of their race. This combination of factors in the empanelling of the petit jury, as in the selection of the venire, raises the necessary inference of purposeful discrimination.

What did the Supreme Court rule in Batson v. Kentucky?

Kentucky (1986; see LegalSpeak, above)—a burglary case involving defendant James Batson—that prosecutors violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by striking jurors based on race.

What is a peremptory challenge?

This means that an attorney can strike the juror peremptorily for any reason, such as simply a hunch that the person would not be a good juror for their side. While lawyers have broad leeway with their peremptory challenges, they do have unfettered discretion.

Is a peremptory challenge a jury selection practice?

Second, the defendant is entitled to rely on the fact, as to which there can be no dispute, that peremptory challenges constitu te a jury selection practice that permit s "those to discriminate who are of a mind to discriminate.".

Why do lawyers question jurors?

Yet all courts provide for the questioning of potential jurors to expose reasons why the individual might not make an ideal juror—one who can be impartial and fair. To that end, lawyers and the judge question each would-be juror, looking for evidence of impermissible bias. When such bias is uncovered, the individual will be excused “for cause,” which means that the lawyer making the challenge can articulate to the judge an acceptable reason for rejecting that person.

What are personal experiences that might affect the person's ability to judge the case?

Personal experiences that might affect the person’s ability to judge the case. While a venireperson’s experience with the subject matter of the case might make that person an informed juror, it might also make him a biased one. For instance, someone who has himself been the victim of a similar crime might be prone to project his trauma onto ...

What is a juror called?

The crowd of people who show up at the courthouse with jury summons in hand are known as “venirepersons, ” which means that they are potential jurors (the group is called “the venire"). In large courthouses, in particular, it’s common for venirepersons to be given a form to complete, which asks a number of questions regarding the individuals’ personal circumstances. At this point (if not before, upon receiving the summons), a potential juror can request a deferral or ask to be excused due to the need, for example, to tend a sick family member or to take care of small children. The judge, sometimes in consultation with the lawyers on the case, will review these questionnaires and excuse venirepersons as appropriate (often with a promise that they’ll be called again soon).

What is a peremptory challenge?

These are known as peremptory challenges, which are ways to get rid of jurors who present no obvious evidence of bias or unsuitability.

Why do defense attorneys use peremptories?

Convinced that the juror would not be fair , the defense attorney uses one of his peremptories to excuse her. Another theory for the use of peremptories is that by letting each side dispense with the most unacceptable members of the jury, it results in a more middle-of-the road jury, one not subject to extreme views.

Why do lawyers not use peremptory?

Although lawyers don’t have to give a reason for using a peremptory, they may not use them in order to rid the jury of people of a certain race, religion, gender, or other protected status. If a pattern begins to emerge—the prosecutor excuses every Black juror but no White members—the judge will intervene.

What is the name of the process of questioning in court?

The questioning process comes with its own legal name—voir dire (vwar deer ). The questions are designed to elicit bias and predisposition.